International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research <p>International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research is a <em>double-blind peer-reviewed Quarterly</em> <em>International </em>Journal dedicated to the publication of research papers, reviews, mini-reviews, Short communications and case studies. This publication is aimed at a broad, interdisciplinary audience of academic and industrial researchers actively engaged in basic and applied laboratory practice, related to dental &amp; health &amp; health sciences.</p> Society of Pharmaceutical Tecnocrats en-US International Journal of Medical Sciences and Pharma Research 2394-8973 Literature Study: Overview of Cholinesterase Enzyme Activity in Horticultural Farmers Exposed to Organophosphates and Carbamates <p>Pesticides are chemicals used to control pests and animals that cause damage to crops. Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides have the potential to cause poisoning for humans, including horticultural farmers. Farmers who experience poisoning will experience metabolic disorders of the enzyme cholinesterase in the blood. To determine the activity of the enzyme cholinesterase due to exposure to organophosphates and carbamates can use the Tintometer kit and Spectrophotometer. This scientific paper is made with a literature study method that discusses cholinesterase enzyme activity in horticultural farmers based on internal factors including gender, age, and knowledge then external factors including spraying frequency, working period, use of PPE, and length of spraying. This literature study used 18 journals in the publication year 2013 - 2023. Based on the results of the journal literature review, the danger of pesticide poisoning which results in a decrease in the activity of the enzyme cholinesterase in the blood of farmers will increase the longer farmers are exposed to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. The decrease in cholinesterase enzyme activity in horticultural farmers based on internal factors in farmers with age, gender, and low knowledge level. For external factors, there was a decrease in cholinesterase enzyme activity in farmers with a spraying frequency of &gt;2 times a week, a working period of more than 5 years, farmers who used incomplete PPE and farmers who sprayed pesticides for more than 3 hours per day.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Organophosphate, Carbamate, Enzim Cholinesterase</p> Diah Lestari Yorina Astutik Copyright (c) 2023 Diah Lestari , Yorina Astutik 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 9 3 1 6 10.22270/ijmspr.v9i3.66 Evaluation of Lipid Profile of High Salt fed Rats treated with L-Arginine <p>There is a global concern on salt consumption above the dietary guideline; salt consumption evokes physiological responses with cardiovascular risks associated with dyslipidemia other than increased blood pressure as numerous studies have pointed out. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of L-Arginine on lipid profile of rats fed high salt diet. Forty Male Albino Wister rats weighing between 70-120g were randomly selected assigned into four groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as the control and was given distilled water and normal rat chow. Group 2 was fed with high salt diet (8% Nacl in feed, and 1% Nacl in drinking water) Group 3 was treated as group 2 with the introduction of L-Arginine on the 43<sup>rd</sup> day of the experiment. Group 4 was treated as group 2 with the introduction of losartan administration on the 43<sup>rd</sup> day of the experiment. Administration of L-Arginine and losartan lasted for 14 days, making a total duration of feeding and drugs administration 56 days. At the end of the 56<sup>th</sup> day, the rats were fasted overnight for 12 hours and sacrificed under anaesthesia using sodium pentobarbitone. Blood samples were then collected from each animal via cardiac puncture into heparinized tubes and centrifuged at 3500rpm for a period of 15 min, and the clear supernatant plasma were collected and stored at -20°C for biochemical analyses of lipid profile. The results showed a significant increase in TG, LDL-C, TC, VLDL-C and a reduction of HDL-C in the salt fed group. Conversely, a significant reduction in TG, LDL-C, TC, VLDL-C and an increase in HDL-C was shown in the salt + L-Arginine treated group when compared to the control. The changes observed in the L-Arginine treated groups reversed the hyperlipidemia in the salt treated group which indicates L-Arginine is beneficial in treatment of salt induced dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>cardiovascular risks, dyslipidemia, L-Arginine, rats fed high salt diet</p> Justin Atiang Beshel Justina Andornimye Ashipu Paulicarp Umim Adie Favour Nyoh Beshel Gabriel Otu Ujong Copyright (c) 2023 Justin Atiang Beshel, Justina Andornimye Ashipu, Paulicarp Umim Adie, Favour Nyoh Beshel, Gabriel Otu Ujong 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 9 3 7 13 10.22270/ijmspr.v9i3.75 Co-expression of Extensively drug resistant (XDR) clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa harboring FOX and MOX ampicillinase Gene <p>This study determines the Co-expression of clinical isolates of XDR <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> harboring <em>FOX</em> and <em>MOX</em> ampicillinase Gene. A total of five (500) hundred “Clean catch” midstream urine and wound samples collected from patients at a tertiary healthcare institution in Ebonyi State Nigeria were analyzed using standard microbiological techniques. Determination of XDR <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> isolates was by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Molecular characterization of <em>FOX</em> and <em>MOX</em> ampicillinase resistant genes were done by PCR using specific primers. In total, the <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> accounted for 22.6 %. XDR <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> accounted for 17. 8 % and 25.3 % in Wound and urine samples respectively. All the XDR <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> harbored <em>FOX</em> and <em>MOX</em> ampicillinase resistant Gene. The high frequency of XDR <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>in our study is very worrisome and could have significant public health impact such as treatment failures, and possibly death, if not properly managed. The solutions to this crisis are to allocate more resources to basic and clinical research and to infection control and antimicrobial stewardship, to develop new antimicrobials, and to optimize the use of those that are currently available.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: XDR, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa, FOX</em>, <em>MOX</em> ampicillinase</p> Beatrice Ngozi John-Onwe Francis Amadi Ibiam Evangeline Chinyere Udenweze Chidinma Stacy Iroha Christiana Inuaesiet Edemekong Ikemesit Udeme Peter Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha Copyright (c) 2023 Beatrice Ngozi John-Onwe , Francis Amadi Ibiam, Evangeline Chinyere Udenweze, Chidinma Stacy Iroha, Christiana Inuaesiet Edemekong, Ikemesit Udeme Peter, Ifeanyichukwu Romanus Iroha 2023-09-15 2023-09-15 9 3 14 19 10.22270/ijmspr.v9i3.76